Question: Assignment Type: Individual Project Deliverable Length: 1–2 pages Points Possible: 100 Due Date: 4/24/2011 11:59:59 PM The World Health Organization (WHO) utilizes the WHO Family of International Classifications in an effort to have a universal method for classifying diseases. There are 3 main components of this system that include the following: •International Classification of Diseases (ICD) •International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) •International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) Define and explain the purpose of each type of classification, and give 2 examples from each classification category. Please submit your assignment. For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials. Please refer to the following multimedia course materials: •Unit 5: WHO and CDC •Unit 5: Future of Coding
World Health Organization International Classifications
With the differences in language, customs and beliefs throughout the world, classifying diseases can become confusing and complicated. This is why the World Health Organization (WHO) has established a family of international classifications. These classifications proved a universal method for diseases to be classified by regardless of any cultural or religious influences. Using a system such as the WHO International Classifications allows for medic across the globe to similarly classify diseases—providing valuable data, which helps the WHO monitor the spread of diseases and the ability to declare if the disease is endemic or pandemic.
International Classification of Diseases
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is one of the systems of classifications found in the family of WHO International Classifications. It is a classification system for all patterns of health and illness. It is the most recent form of a classification system that began in the late 1800s where only the burial rate for an area was recorded. Now under the ICD the cause of death is also recorded (“International classification of,” 2011). Recording the cause of death is beneficial to the WHO because it allows for an accurate calculation of mortality and morbidity rates of a specific state or region. There are hundreds of diseases classified by the ICD, including tuberculous meningitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (World Health Organization, 1997). Overall, the International Classification of Diseases is a way to group individuals who exhibit diagnoses instead of the diagnoses themselves (Cengage, 2002).
International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health
Another classification system found in the family of WHO International Classifications is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health system (ICF). This classification system categorizes health issues into two main categories each containing subcategories. The first main category is a list of bodily functions and structure, while the second category is a list of domains of activity and participation (“International classification of,” 2011). A unique aspect about the ICF is that environmental factors are also included, as well as presenting the idea that every individual has the ability to develop some degree of disability. These two factors are important because it allows for medics to record environmental factors on an individual’s functioning. This classification system is useful to the WHO because it allows for them to report health and disabilities not only at individual levels but also at population levels too. Classifications in this system are more complicated than other systems because the environmental factors are also recorded. Examples of what would be recorded under this classification system would be any diseases or factors that affect the structure of an individual, such as neuromusculoskeletal dysfunction (Van Der El, 2010), or that limit performance, such as juvenile diabetes (Ralston, 2010).
International Classification of Health Interventions
The International Classification of Health Intervention (ICHI) is the last of the classification systems found in the family of WHO International Classifications. This classification system is used as a tool for reporting and analyzing the distribution and evolution of health interventions for statistical purposes (“International classification of,” 2011). While there are many things that could be classified as health interventions two examples are the cessation of cigarette sales to youth and programs to prevent teenage pregnancies.
Classification systems are important so that all diseases, surgeries, and interventions are recorded similarly worldwide. This creates a coherent, sound data that is critical when formulating statistics about health issues affecting a specific people, region or establishing a global statistic.
Cengage, G. (2002). International Classification of Diseases. Encyclopedia of public health. Retrieved April 24, 2011, from http://www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/ international-classification-diseases
International classification of diseases. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/
International classification of functioning, disability and health . (2011). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/
International classification of health interventions. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/classifications/ichi/en/
Ralston, D.C. (2010). Philosophical reflections on disability. New York, NY: Springer Science+business Media B.V.
Van Der El, A. (2010). Orthopaedic manual therapy diagnosis: spine and temporomandibular joints. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.
World Health Organization, . (1997). Application of the international classification of diseases to neurology. Canada: World Health Organization.